• Introduction :

  • P 994 is a multifunctional petrol additive with “friction modifier”, sourced from TOTAL France.
  • European Scenario:

  • TOTAL visualized the need, few years back, to introduce a high performance branded premium gasoline.
  • The technology challenge was to formulate advanced gasoline that delivers maximum performance – improved fuel economy, more power and acceleration, enhanced engine cleanliness and protection along with lowest emissions.  The aim was to develop these fuels for the latest technology engines, but still provide benefits to engines of any age, including classic and village vehicles.  One key component in achieving this was the additive package.
  • From February 2005, TOTAL, its European network, has introduced a new branded gasoline, “Excellium”, which includes a similar multi functional additive, offering the following features :
  • Friction Modifier component to achieve 3 to 4% fuel efficiency benefit, to the end customer.
  • Very high level of injector (2% maximum flow area loss) – and inlet valve cleanliness (10mg deposits maximum), so that performance features of high engine power and drivability are achieved.
  • No increase in combustion chamber deposits (CCD under control) so that no additional octane requirement increase (ORI) is induced.
  • The gasoline additive package contains several proprietary components including:
  • Dispersants
  • Carrier fluids
  • Friction modifiers and
  • Corrosion inhibitors.
  • Worldwide, oil majors, Shell, BP, Exxon Mobil, Texaco Chevron, TOTAL have been continuously addressing the objective of improving fuel quality not only to meet the emission standards but also for higher customer satisfaction.
  • P 994 is the additive supplied by TOTAL, suitably modified for use in Indian gasoline.
  • Friction Modifier:

  • One specific area identified is the incorporation of a friction modifier in the fuel, which can contribute to about 3 - 4% fuel economy, along with the detergent in the additive.
  • Studies indicate that friction losses in an engine occur in the top end of chamber where the lubricant does not reach.  In addition, there is frictional loss in the fuel injection pump where a high pressure is developed, and in the fuel injectors. The incorporation of the friction modifier effectively addresses this friction loss and offers the benefits of fuel economy.
  • Fuel System Cleanliness:

  • Concurrently, fuel economy and engine power are also dependent on the fuel system cleanliness, particularly injectors and inlet valves. The chemistry used in friction modifiers is such that it increases the inlet valve deposits, which also have a bearing on fuel efficiency, power and emissions.
  • Optimised Formulation – P 994:

  • Therefore, an optimized evaluation is required to meet the two different and apparently conflicting objectives of a quality premium gasoline (motor spirit):
  • Injector cleanliness – 0% (zero) flow area loss.
  • Inlet valve deposits – 0% (zero) milligram deposit.
  • ADVANTAGES OF P 994

  • Better fuel economy, higher in city driving
  • Excellent Injector cleanliness
  • Reduces Inlet valve deposits
  • No increase in combustion chamber deposits
  • STRENGTHS OF P 994

  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited was adding P 994 exclusively to ordinary petrol and marketing the same as XTRA PREMIUM petrol in their retail outlets.
  • P 994 EVALUATIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS

  • 1.
    Injector cleanliness – remaining flow loss is only 2%(typically zero) – Peugeot EW10D
  • 2.
    Intake Valve deposits – 10 mg – M111(CEC F-20-A-98 Procedure)
  • 3.
    No increase in combustion chamber deposits- M111(CEC F-20-A-98 Procedure)
  • 4.
    Approved by European Automobile Manufactures Association
  • 5.
    Certified by ICAT for fuel savings
  • P 994 DOSAGE

  • A regular dosage of 600 ppm or 6ml in 10 litres of petrol is recommended. Regular usage will give optimum benefit.
  • P 994 ECONOMICS

  • Friction Modifier along with the detergent to give 3 to 4% fuel economy (fuel economy has been evaluated under different driving cycle conditions. The benefits are higher in city driving conditions).